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৩৭তম বিসিএস লিখিত পরীক্ষার ইংরেজি প্রশ্নপত্র | ejobscircular24

Government - Non Government job circular and news of Bangladesh

৩৭তম বিসিএস লিখিত পরীক্ষার ইংরেজি প্রশ্নপত্র

৩৭তম বিসিএস লিখিত প্রশ্নপত্র -
বিষয়ঃ ইংরেজি
পরীক্ষাঃ ১২ ফেব্রুয়ারি ২০১৭ 

Hides and skins are the raw material of the leather manufacturer or tanner. When man first used animal skins is not known. Skins, even when preserved by tanning, do not last as long as stone, pottery, metals and bone, and our knowledge about the early use of skins is vague. However, the numerous flint scrapers and bone or ivory sewing needles in our museums show that tens of thousands of years ago, in the early Stone Age, skins were prepared and used long before textiles. Nowadays, hides and skins are essential raw materials and important articles of commerce.
Any animal skin can be made into leather, but the skins chiefly used come from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses. To a lesser extent the skins from dogs, deer, reptiles, marine animals, fish and birds are also used. Snakes, lizards, seals, whales, and sharks all contribute to leather manu­facture.

'Hide' is the trade word for the skins of the larger animals such as full grown cattle and horses; and' skin' for the smaller animals, and immature large animals such as ponies and calves. Some skins are made into leather after the hair or wool has been removed; but the skins of the fur-bearing animals and sometimes of sheep, lambs and ponies are processed, or 'dressed', with the hair or wool still in place.

Most cattle hides come from South America, the U.S.A. and from Australia with smaller quantities from East and West Africa, Central America and the Sudan. Sheepskins come from Australia and New Zealand, and the best goat skins come from India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Arabia and Nigeria.

There is usually a long interval between the flaying, or stripping, of the skin from the animal and putting it into the tannery for processing. If the flayed skins were left wet, they would go bad, just like meat; they must therefore be preserved in some way. The commonest method is salting. This involves sprinkling the skins with salt on their inner side; or immersing the skins completely in strong salt solution for some hours, after which they are drained and sprinkled with solid salt.

Another method of drying is to stretch the skins out on the ground, or on frames and to dry them in the sun, or even better in the shade. Beetles and other insects eat skins and must be kept away by the use of some chemical such as D.D.T. The dried skins are called 'crust' leather and are sent in this form to the tanneries for the very complicated process of tanning. After tanning, only the 'corium' or middle layer of the skin is left to provide leather as we know it. It is to the closely knit fiber structure of the corium that leather owes its virtues of flexibility, strength and elasticity, its resistance to rubbing and its unique power of allowing water vapor and air to pass through it while resisting penetration by liquid water itself.
এখানে দেখুন 

 ভিডিও দেখুন

Standing knee deep in a cement tank of milky water, Dinesh Kumar dunks clothes before vigorously scrubbing them with a brush at an outdoor laundry in the Indian capital.
After quitting high school, Kumar joined his father among the ranks of traditional washermen who have hand-cleaned the sprawling city's dirty clothes for generations.
Over the years, the work of "dhobi wallahs" has modernised to a degree, with industrial machines now used at some laundries for washing heavier loads of curtains, bed covers and towels.
But 32-year-old Kumar said most of the washing was still done by hand. The more delicate and expensive garments also needed to be handled carefully to ensure sewn-on beads or embroidery were not damaged.
"I start work at the crack of dawn and wash about 100 clothes by evening," Kumar told AFP as washermen nearby swung damp trousers over their heads before thrashing them against concrete stone slabs.
After every wash in a milky bath of bleach and detergent, Kumar inspects the clothes closely to ensure they are spotlessly clean.
"Most of the clothes come here from hotels, embassies or beauty parlours. If we don't wash properly, they will stop sending the clothes over."
Once the clothes are scrubbed, Kumar rinses them in the cement tub, wearing a plastic sheet around his waist to stop his rolled-up trousers getting wet.
Such so-called "dhobi ghats" are normally set up next to a river, but these washermen in New Delhi rely on well water stored in cement tanks and pools for their supply.
After the clothes are hung out on lines strung up on terrace rooftops to dry, they are ironed, often by the women in the washermens' family.

বাংলা থেকে ইংরেজি অনুবাদ এসেছিল ২০১১ সালের ২৬ মার্চের ইত্তেফাকের বিশেষ সংখ্যায় প্রকাশিত ‘ থেকে ।।
নিশ্চিত মৃত্যুর ফাঁদ থেকে রক্ষা পাই
মেজর জেনারেল (অব) সুবিদ আলী ভূঁইয়া
মাত্র ১৪ বছর বয়স হান্নানের। দেখতেও ছোটখাটো কিন্তু বেশ শক্ত সমর্থ। আমি তাকে একটি ময়লা গেঞ্জি ও একটা হাফ প্যান্ট পরিয়ে ঠিক রাখাল ছেলের মতো সাজিয়ে দিই। স্বাধীনতা সংগ্রামে সেও যে একজন যোদ্ধা তাকে দেখে বিশ্বাস করার কোন উপায় রইল না। অত্যনত্ম আমাদের ৩০০-৪০০ গজ সামনে তাকে চলতে বললাম কারণ তাকে 'স্কাউট'-এর দায়িত্ব দেয়া হয়েছে। সে সামনে এগিয়ে যেতে যেতে সতর্ক দৃষ্টিতে চারদিকে নজর রাখল। এমন নির্মম শত্রম্নর সঙ্গে আমাদের লড়াই, তাই সামান্য অসতর্ক হলেই নিষ্ঠুরতম হত্যার শিকার হতে হবে। সুতরাং হান্নানের কাজ হলো সে খেয়াল রাখবে কোথাও পাঞ্জাবী সৈন্য বা রাজাকাররা ওঁৎ পেতে আছে কি না। থাকলে সে যেন সঙ্গে সঙ্গে সঙ্কেত দিয়ে আমাদের জানিয়ে দেয়। সে তার সামনে এবং দুপাশে ভালভাবে দেখে যখন বুঝতে পারে যে, সেখানে কোন শত্রম্ন নেই তখন আমাদের এগিয়ে যেতে হাতে ইশারা দেয়। আমরা তার ইশারা অনুযায়ী অগ্রসর হই। এভাবে ৩ ঘণ্টায় আমরা প্রায় দেড় মাইল পথ অতিক্রম করি। কখনও কখনও সে গ্রামবাসী অথবা ছোট ছোট ছেলেকে জিজ্ঞাসা করে সেখানে কোন রাজাকার কিংবা পাঞ্জাবী দেখছে কিনা।

ডাউনলোড PDF

by: Jafar Iqbal Ansary

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